portal.mittelalter.com - Das europäische Mittelalterportal (de) http://portal.mittelalter.com Das europäische Mittelalterportalfür alles rund um die Epoche: Stadtfeste, Events, Märkte und Festumzüge, Kunst und Museen, Theater und Konzerte... de-de 2020 Mittelalter.com Fri, 04 Oct 2019 06:03:58 GMT Veranstaltungen in Deutschland (Europäisches Mittelalterportal) http://portal.mittelalter.com http://www.mittelalter.com/img/pergament_intro_top.png Das Europäische Mittelalterportal der Mediävistik (Portal.Mittelalter.Com) 120 Castelo da Feira <p>Tradition has it that the Castle of Feira stands on the site of an indigenous temple dedicated to the local divinity Bandeve-Lugo Toiraeco, which was later transformed into a Marian temple. Although tombstones and other vestiges encountered in the defensive area confirm the presence of Roman settlement dating back to the early empire, there is no confirmation of the link to other temples. In the vicinity of this site existed the Roman via Olissipo-Bracara Augusta connecting Lisbon and Braga, respectively.<br /> <br /> When, in the middle of the 9th century (868), Alfonso III of León created the administrative and military region, that he called Terra de Santa Maria, he laid its defences in the military fortress that existed there, in Civitas Sanctae Mariae. For many years, the fortress functioned as a forward base in the Christian Reconquista from the Arab invasions from the south. Twice in 1000, the armies of Al-Mansur conquered the Castle and destroyed the local population, but they were retaken successively by Christian forces. During the reign of Bermudo III (1028?1037) Arab continued to attempt to capture the Castle, but were defeated definitively in the Battle of Cesár. The governors, Mem Guterres and Mem Lucídio developed a giant project to reconstruct the Castle and develop the lands of the Terra de Santa Maria. The Leonese kings distinguished the population with the Honra de Infanções, an honour at the time only received by the judges, magistrates and councilmen of Lisbon. The first reference to a built structure in this location occurred in the 11th century, in the Chronica Gothorum, identifying the construction of the inferior portion of the keep and fortress. Since 1117, Feira was the location of one of the most important fairs in Portugal, which, over time, gave the town its name. The fair was established in the shadow of the castle.<br /> <p><br /> The castle was at the centre of the 1128 revolt between Afonso Henriques and his mother Queen Teresa, Countess of Portugal. Teresa had created tensions between the rulers of the Iberian peninsula through conflicts with her sister Urraca, and later rebuking Alfonso VII (her nephew), resulting in his invasion of the County of Portugal. Teresa also alienated the clergy and nobles, pandering to her alliance with Galicia, through her lover Fernando Pérez, and favouring the ecclesiastical pretensions of the rival Galician Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, Diego Gelmírez. The clergy and nobility allied themselves with Afonso Henriques pretensions to the stewardship of the County of Portugal over his mother. Pero Gonçalves de Marnel, from a family of landholders, governor of Santa Maria da Feira and alcade of the Castle at the time, was one of these nobles who felt threatened by the growing power of Galicia within the County: he had been substituted as the governor of Coimbra by Fernando Pérez himself, and saw a threat to his wealth, prestige and possessions, and therefore aligned himself and his Castle with the Afonso Henriques at the São Mamede. The Galician-supported forces of the Queen were defeated on 13 June 1128, partly due to the activities that occurred at the Castle.<br /> <br /> By 1251, the settlement in Santa Maria da Feira was identified in the royal inventory (Portuguese: Inquirições of King Afonso I.<br /> <br /> The castle and lands of Feira were provided as a dowry in 1300 on the nuptials of Isabel of Aragon in the 12th century.<br /> <br /> During the 14th century, the walls were finally constructed, likely at the time Gonçalo Garcia de Figueiredo was alcalde in 1357.<br /> <br /> On 10 September 1372, King Ferdinand donated the lands of Santa Maria to João Afonso Telo de Meneses, Count of Barcelos.[1] But, in 1383, during the 1383-1385 Crisis, Meneses escapes for Castile, leaving the structure in the hands of Martim Correia. This change later facilitated its capture by men loyal to the Master of Aviz, John, in 1385.[1] On 8 April 1385, the territory comes under the stewardship of Álvario Pereira by King John I, cousin of the Constable Nuno Álvares Pereira, before being conceded to João Rodrigues de Sá.<br /> <br /> In 1448, it is donated to Fernão Pereira, who was obligated to reconstruct the castle, which was only completed in the second half of the 15th century. Under the Pereiras, the castle was transformed into a palatial residence; the great works which would define the architectural character of the castle date from this period, including the watchtowers, the connical turrets and reinforced defenses.<br /> <br /> The fourth Count of Feira, Diogo Forjaz, orders the marker/inscription that was erected over the barbican to commemorate the construction of the clock tower (which existed until 1755).<br /> <br /> During the 17th century, the construction of internal palacete was concluded (which has since been destroyed: the only remnant being a local fountain). It was also around this time (1656) that Joana Forjaz Pereira de Meneses e Silva, Countess of Feira, ordered the constructed of the octagonal-shapedBaroque chapel.<br /> <br /> But, after 1708, the Counts of Feira were extinct, and their possession were passed onto the Casa do Infantado, marking its long decline and ruin.Due to abandonment the castle was devastated by a fire on 15 January 1722. Its ruins were purchased during a public sale by General Silva Pereira in 1839. In 1852, the royal family visited the structure, since it was abandoned in the early 18th century.<br /> <br /> It was classified as a National Monument as early as 1881. The main pit was excavated at this time (completed in 1877).<br /> <br /> In 1905, the castle began to be publicly supported for formal restoration, resulting in the posting of a guard.It was during this period that Drs. Gonçalves Coelho and Vaz Ferreira discovered the early inscriptions from the castles history. During this period, completed around 1907 and later 1909, the castle was restored, the latter by Fortunato Fonseca. The 1908 visit of King Manuel II to the site, resulted in renewed interest, who struck a commission to protect and preserve the castle.<br /> <br /> Public access to the Castle began in 1950, through the direction of the Direcção Geral dos Serviços de Urbanização (General Directorate on Urban Services), although there had already existed paid tours provided since 1927. From 1935 to 1944, DGEMN - Direcção Geral dos Edifícios e Monumentos Nacionais (General Directorate for Buildings and National Monuments) completed several public restoration projects at castle: in 1935, under the architect Baltasar de Castro, the parapets and merlons were cleared, unobstructed, and reconstructed; in 1936, the reconstruction of the walls and the vaulted entranceway to the military square; and in 1939-1944, the demolition of the Counts´ palace, excavations and reconstruction of the walls, cistern, pavements and roof of the chapel. On 13 January 1963 the castle was illuminated, through the intiative of engineer Arantes e Oliveira, in the Public Works office, and Galvão Teles, in the Ministry of Education. Minor renovations were completed in 1986.<br /> <br /> On 1 June 1992, the property came under the authority of the Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico - IPPAR (Portuguese Institute of Patrimonial Architecture), under decree 106F/92. Over the decades, even after the IPPAR was refashioned into the IGESPAR, the Castle has been monitored, maintained and directed by the Comissão de Vigilância do Castelo de Santa Maria da Feira, who operates tours and tourist-inspired interpretive guides.<br /> Architecture<br /> The coat of arms over the portico of the castle<br /> <br /> The isolated castle is situated on a small hilltop overlooking the urban valley of Feira. Being a transitional castle, there have been many military adaptations to site´s defences over the years.<br /> <br /> Its plan is irregular oval, with protected entranceway, guarded by a barbican with moat and four addorsed rectangular watchtowers. On its southeastern corner are portions of a minor bastion, while opposite it, in the northwest is the hexagonal Baroque chapel. The walls, with small battlements, are circled by a parapet of large stone, with cruciform battlements and embrasures.<br /> <br /> An arcade gate provides access to the compound and rectangular prison block tower, reinforced with watchtowers on its apexes, with a protected entrance via a patio. An arched door gives access to the buildings and the donjon, reinforced by square towers in wedge-shapes, with access protected by machicolations (providing coverage from three-floors) and is topped by a cradle vault, sectioned into four branches by arched corbels. The turrets are finished in small canonical cones with gables.<br /> <br /> The chapel, located on the exterior wall adjacent to the main entrance, is a hexagonal-shape two-storey body, with a rectangular annex (itself consisting of a two story body with veranda window doors), both with tiled pivoted roofs, delimited on their extremities by corbels. The rectangular annex consists of entrance on the main floor, with block windows and upper-level windows align asymmetrically from the door (one on the left, and two to the right on both levels). Directly above this doorway is a bell-tower niche, surmounted by a cross.<br /> <br /> The main chapel with an axial portal, consists of pilasters and corebls surrounding the main door, then gabled trim and a pronounced superior semi-circular pediment, which encircles an ocular hexagonal window. This Baroque era landmark, is marked by plain pilasters, wedges, and cyma line with angular pinnacles. The focused interior plan of the chapel includes five rounded arches that houses a central and two lateral alters. The pulpit is a basic with a hexagonal screen of wooden balusters.&nbsp;</p> &#65279; http://portal.mittelalter.com/?r=sai&i=RGEgaXN0IGFiZXIgamVtYW5kIE5ldWdpZXJpZyExNjAwODExNjM0NTgzMTAwMTQ2MTg2TXNGIEdyZWdvcg== http://portal.mittelalter.com/?r=sai&i=RGEgaXN0IGFiZXIgamVtYW5kIE5ldWdpZXJpZyExNjAwODExNjM0NTg0MTE4MzA2MTYwTXNGIEdyZWdvcg== Almourol <p>Das Bild zeigt die Burg mit Blick vom Fluss Tagus, die Granitvorsprünge der Insel und den gut 20 Meter über den Fluss ragenden Hügel und die halbrunden Befestigungen.<br /> <br /> Die Burg Almourol ist eine mittelalterliche Burg, die sich auf einer kleinen Insel in der Mitte des Flusses Tagus befindet, und gehört zum Bezirk von "Praia do Ribatejo", 4 Kilometer von der Gemeinde Vila Nova da Barquinha, in der portugiesischen Zentralregion. Die Burg war Teil einer Verteidigungslinie, die von den Tempelrittern kontrolliert wurde und eine Festung die während der portugiesischen Reconquista genutzt wurde.<br /> <br /> GESCHICHTE<br /> Es wird angenommen dass die Burg an der Stelle eines lusitanischen Castrum errichtet wurde, welches später während des 1. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. von den Römern erobert wurde. Es wurde später von aufeinanderfolgenden Kräften verändert und ausgebaut, wie den Alanen, Westgoten und Mauren, aber es ist unklar wann die heute bestehende Burg angelegt wurde. Während Grabungen die in den inneren und äußeren Befestigungen durchgeführt wurden, kamen zahlreiche Zeugen der römischen Besatzung zu tage, wie Münzen und römische Fundamente, wie auch mittelalterliche Reste wie Medallien und 2 marmorne Säulen, die in der Nähe der Burg entdeckt wurden.<br /> <br /> Die Burg Almourol ist eine der symbolhaftesten und schönstgelegensten mittelalterlichen Monumente der Reconquista, und bestes Beispiel für den Einfluss der Tempelritter in Portugal. Als sie 1129 von dem portugiesischen Adel loyal ergebenen Truppen von den Mauren erobert wurde, war sie als Almorolan bekannt. Die Burg wurde in die Obhut von Gualdim Pais, dem Meister der Tempelritter in Portugal gegeben, der es wieder aufbauen ließ. Der Wiederaufbau begann 1171 (nach der Inschrift über dem Haupttor) und wurde in den folgenden Jahren weitergeführt.<br /> <br /> Als der strategische Wert verloren ging, wurde die Burg verlassen und verfiel nach und nach zu einer Ruine. Im 19. Jahrhundert ändert sich die Sichtweise auf die Burg im Zuge der Romantik, was schließlich zu Veränderungen in den 40iger und 50iger Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts, wie das Hinzufügen von Zinnen und Befestigungen, deren archäologischen Befunde sehr zweifelhaft sind.<br /> <br /> So wurde der Wehrgang, verschiedene Mauerstücke und das Bodenpflaster mit kleinen Flussteinen wieder in Stand gesetzt, aber auch der besondere Reiz des Bergfrieds zerstört. Auch durch die Nutzung der Burg als offizielle Residenz der portugiesischen Republik zwischen 1940-1950 und durch den Anschluß an das Stromnetz kamen weitere bauliche Veränderungen dazu.<br /> <br /> In 1996 fanden die letzten Instandsetzungsarbeiten an der Burg statt. Aber schon in 2004 zeigte die Burg durch den Eintritt von Wasser in das Mauerwerk leichte Verfallerscheinungen an verschiedenen Mauerabschnitten.<br /> <br /> ARCHITEKTUR<br /> Die Burg erstreckt sich auf einem 18 Meter hohen Granitsockel, sie ist ca. 310 Meter lang und 75 Meter breit. Sie liegt inmitten des Flußes Tagus, knapp unterhalb des Zusammenflußes mit dem Zêzere vor der Stadt Tancos. Obwohl der Zugang zu diesem portugiesischem Nationaldenkmal kostenlos ist, müssen Besucher einen kleinen Obulus für die Überfahrt mit einem Boot zahlen (Da dies der einzige Weg auf die Insel ist!)<br /> Die Form besteht aus einem unförmigen rechteckigen Grundriss mit zwei Innenhöfen, der äußere und untere zeigt flußaufwärts mit einem Ausfalltor, flankiert von neun runden Türmen. Der Innere liegt höher, dessen Mauern komplett vom Haupttor bis zum Begrfried begehbar sind. Der Bergfried ist drei Stockwerke hoch und besitzt noch die Originalstützen, die den ursprünglichen Dachstuhl getragen haben. Die übrigen Türme haben einen unregelmäßige Form aufgrund des unförmigen Terrains. Der Bergfried ist tatsächlich eine Innovation bei dieser Burg, wie sie im 12. Jahrhundert auch bei der Burg von Tomar zu finden ist, die Haupt-Rückzugsfestung der Templer in Portugal. Genauso die Wachtürme waren Neuerungen die ebenfalls vom Orden in den westlichen Teil der Iberischen Halbinsel gebracht wurden, und Anwendung in Almourol fanden.<br /> <br /> Das Innere ist durch zahlreiche Steinerne Durchgänge geteilt, die die verschiedenen Bereiche der Burg miteinander verbinden. Zwei Inschriften markieren die Geschichte der Burg, wie auch den Wiederaufbau durch Gualdim Pais (über dem Haupttor), wie auch die christliche Geschichte (Ein Kreuz über einem offenen Fenster des Bergfrieds).&nbsp;</p> &#65279; http://portal.mittelalter.com/?r=sai&i=RGEgaXN0IGFiZXIgamVtYW5kIE5ldWdpZXJpZyExNjAwODExNjM0MTk4MDA2MzQ2MTExTXNGIEdyZWdvcg== http://portal.mittelalter.com/?r=sai&i=RGEgaXN0IGFiZXIgamVtYW5kIE5ldWdpZXJpZyExNjAwODExNjM0MTkxNjE4NDMwMTA2TXNGIEdyZWdvcg==